Buy Xanthan Gum is a polysaccharide produced through the fermentation of glucose or sucrose by the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris. As a food additive, it is used as a thickening agent and stabilizer in various products. The fermentation of glucose, sucrose, or lactose by the Xanthomonas campestris bacterium produces it. After a fermentation period, the polysaccharide is precipitated from a growth medium with isopropyl alcohol, dried, and ground into a fine powder.
BiosynthesisSynthesis originates from glucose as a substrate for the synthesis of the sugar nucleotides precursors UDP-glucose, UDP-glucuronate, and GDP-mannose that are required for building the pentasaccharide repeat unit. This links the synthesis of xanthan to central carbohydrate metabolism. The repeat units are built up at undecaprenylphosphate lipid carriers that are anchored in the cytoplasmic membrane. Specific glycosyltransferases sequentially transfer the sugar moieties of the nucleotide sugar xanthan precursors to the lipid carriers. Acetyl and pyruvyl residues are added as non-carbohydrate decorations. Mature repeat units are polymerized and exported in a way resembling the Wzy-dependent polysaccharide synthesis mechanism of Enterobacteriaceae. Products of the gum gene cluster drive synthesis, polymerization, and export of the repeat unit.
One of the most remarkable properties of Xanthan Gum is its ability to produce a large increase in the viscosity of a liquid by adding a minimal quantity of gum, on the order of one per cent. In most foods, it is used at 0.5%, and can be used in lower concentrations. The viscosity of xanthan gum solutions decreases with higher shear rates; this is called shear thinning or pseudo plasticity.
In the oil industry, xanthan gum is used in large quantities, usually to thicken drilling mud. These fluids serve to carry the solids cut by the drilling bit back to the surface. Xanthan gum provides great “low-end” rheology. The widespread use of horizontal drilling and the demand for good control of drilled solids has led to its expanded use.
In cosmetics, xanthan gum is used to prepare water gels, usually in conjunction with bentonite clays. It has some skin-hydrating properties. Xanthan gum is a common ingredient in fake blood recipes and in gunge/slime.